Their native habitat is along the Mediterranean coast. Therefore, lavenders are happiest in places with moist, cool winters and hot, dry summers. And, full sun and well-drained soil. That’s pretty specific, right? If none of this sounds like your backyard, don't be deterred from trying lavender. As, with the exception of very cold zones, there's probably one that's right for you.
While there are over 400 varieties of lavender, they can be grouped into three main types:
- English (Lavandula angustifolia):The classic with long spikes holding fragrant flowers. Some varieties better tolerate heat and others might bloom longer in cooler climates. Most flower in late spring to early summer. Even after they’ve slowed in the blossom department what remains is a silvery mound of intensely fragrant leaves.
- Non-English (French, Spanish, Sweet, Wooly, etc.): These bloom earlier in the season in warmer zones, often in very early spring. A diverse collection. The variation in fragrance, size, color, texture, and flower heads make it a truly exciting panoply of plants.
- English hybrids (Lavandula x intermedia): Known as the lavandins. The varieties in this group come latest in the bloom cycle. Starting just as the the English lavenders are finishing, and continuing to mid summer. Lavandins have long gray leaves, twice or more the size of L. angustifolias, and grow much larger and faster. Some are more adept at dealing with heat than their English parents.
So what grows well where? Here are our top picks for the best lavenders by region.
The Best Lavenders for Hot and Dry Climates
Southwest, West Coast, California
Yes, conditions in these areas are heaven for lavender in terms of growing well with little fuss. However some, such as the hybrids, do perform better than others. If you have either very clay or sandy soil amend well with organic matter such as compost. Add gravel to the planting hole, and do not mulch around plants. This is true for all regions! Although lavenders are native to the Mediterranean, they need consistent moisture during the first few years. This helps to establish a strong root system. Once rooted in, only occasional water is needed.
Favorite Lavenders for Hot, Humid Climates
Mid-Atlantic, Upper and Lower South
In these humid places, try Spanish lavender or French lavender. Both seem to be more tolerant of steamy climates. As an extra precaution, make sure your plants are located where they will receive good air circulation. This will cut down on disease which can impact their overall health and flowering.
Lavender for Cool and Wet Climates
Coastal California, Pacific Northwest
Where the summer marine influence is strong, disease can affect some lavenders. Some (but not all) English and Spanish varieties do well here. As noted previously, proper soil prep will yield the best results. All of these varieties also do very well in containers.
COLD (ZONE 5 AND UP)
Northeast, Upper Midwest, Interior West
These regions pose all sorts of challenges to growing lavender–cold winters, humid summers, often rich or heavy soils. But, yes, you can grow many varieties of this plant, particularly some of the English lavenders and the hybrids. First, select varieties that are cold tolerant. Some lavenders will survive temperatures as low as -10 degrees F. Then amend soil with sand and gravel, plant high (an inch or soil above soil line), and prune every spring.
PLANT THEM IN CONTAINERS
Sometimes dealing with soil, light, and weather complications are simply too complicated. Luckily you have a simple alternative–lavenders love to live in pots.
Make a lean soil mixture (1/3 sand, 1/3 topsoil and 1/3 compost is ideal). Add a handful of gravel or a pile of broken pottery shards to the bottom for additional assistance with drainage.
Place in full sun in a location with good air circulation. In colder zones, overwinter containers in a sheltered location. Top plants with a thick blanket of fallen leaves or mulch.