Zone: Most camellia varieties are hardy in zones 7-10, but some, such as the Monrovia Ice Angels® series, are hardy to zone 6.
Soil: Camellias need slightly acidic soil (pH 5.5-6.5); they don’t grow well in soils with a high pH and will exhibit signs of stress, including yellowing leaves, if the soil is alkaline.
Moisture: Camellias do not tolerate wet feet; it’s essential that you site them in an area with well-drained soil.
Light: In general, camellias grow and bloom better in partial shade (morning sun and dappled afternoon shade are ideal conditions) with shelter from hot afternoon sun. This is especially true for young plants, which thrive under the shade of tall trees or when grown on the north side of a house. As they grow larger and their thick canopy of leaves shades and cools their roots, they gradually will accept more sun. Shade provided in winter helps reduce cold damage for camellias growing in zones 6 and 7.
Watering: Camellias need to be watered when newly planted or during times of extreme drought. Established plants (over 3 years old, vigorous, and shading their own roots) get by with little supplemental water. If you do water them, make sure the soil is well drained.
Fertilizing: Camellia shrubs need fertilizer, but not when they’re in bud or flower. Wait at least a month after they finish blooming, and then apply an acid-based fertilizer every eight weeks until they set their buds. Do not fertilize after August, as the plants will be entering a period of dormancy. Fertilizer could cause unwanted growth without enough time to harden off before cold weather.
Pruning: Prune after blooming has ended. Remove dead or weak wood; thin out growth when it is so dense that flowers have no room to open properly. Shorten lower branches to encourage upright growth; cut back top growth to make lanky shrubs bushier. When pruning, cut just above a scar that marks the end of the previous year’s growth (often a slightly thickened, somewhat rough area where bark texture and color change slightly). Making your cuts just above this point usually forces three or four dominant buds into growth.